Companion Animal Knowledge Base

PainTrace® quantifies both acute pain and chronic pain, and monitors pain response to treatment over time. PainTrace® is an individual pain measure, unique to each patient – not a scale. PainTrace® supports patient care in active patients to see pain during walking and trotting, sitting and standing, and even monitors pain in sedated / anesthetized patients. Veterinarians and researchers utilize PainTrace® to localize pain, confirm etiology with complementary diagnostics, track pain, and communicate pain with pet owners and colleagues. Learn more about PainTrace®.

Below are educational resources that focus on pain in a broader sense. BioTraceIT™ is passionate about returning patients to a pain free state, early diagnosis, and supporting quality of life.


  • AAHA Trends® Magazine June 2022: Next-Gen Diagnostics

    A review of 3 artificial intelligence and algorithm-assisted systems by Dr. Michael C. Petty. 

  • Caregiver Placebo Effect in Analgesic Clinical Trials for Painful Cats

    The caregiver placebo effect across these clinical trials was remarkably high making demonstration of efficacy for an analgesic above a placebo difficult. Gruen, M. E. et al.

  • Complex Relationship Between Veterinarian Mental Health and Client Satisfaction

    This article is a deep dive into client relationships and the impact on practice health. Study findings point to a correlation between client satisfaction and client adherence and loyalty, clinic income, and potentially veterinary caregiver mental health. Perret, J. L. et al.

  • Threat Response System: Parallel Brain Process in Pain vis-a-vis Fear and Anxiety

    Pain is essential for avoidance of tissue damage and for promotion of healing. Given such reciprocal relationships, the present article uses neuro- scientific conceptualizations of fear and anxiety as a theoretical framework for hitherto insufficiently understood pathophysiological mechanisms underlying chronic pain. Elman, I. et al.

  • Veterinary Client Communications Analysis

    Pain Assessment creates a shared language for communication between colleagues and between veterinarians and clients which impacts patient care according to this data. Russell, E. et al.  


  • APPA Pet Ownership Report

    The report examines the various generations of pet owners and focuses on the largest group of owners — Millennials — and the growing group of Gen Z pet parents compared to both Baby Boomers and Gen X. 

  • Assessing Chronic Pain in Dogs

    Quick reference from Today's Veterinary Practice on chronic pain assessment in dogs and feline osteoarthritis.

  • Millenial Pet Parents

    An interesting article, courtesy of Veterinary Practice News, on millennials, now the largest pet owner group at 32%, and what they want from veterinary practices. Khuly, P. et al. 

  • The Danger of Pet Placebo

    The placebo effect shows up in pets too, but these treatments are fooling owners, not their animals. An interesting read on caregiver placebo effect. Anthes, E.

Pain Assessment

  • 2022 AAHA Pain Management Guidelines

    These updated guidelines present a practical and logical approach to the assessment and management of acute and chronic pain in canine and feline patients. Recognizing pain is fundamental to successful treatment, and diagnostic guides and algorithms are included for assessment of both acute and chronic pain.

  • 2022 ISFM Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Acute Pain in Cats

    These Guidelines have been created by a panel of experts and the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) based on the available literature and the authors’ experience. They are aimed at general practitioners to assist in the assessment, prevention, and management of acute pain in feline patients, and to provide a practical guide to selection and dosing of effective analgesic agents.

  • 2022 WSAVA Guideline for the Recognition Assessment and Treatment of Pain

    This document is designed to provide the user with easy-to-implement, core fundamentals on the successful recognition and treatment of pain in the day-to-day small animal clinical practice setting. It provides basic and practical information with an extensive reference list to guide those who want to further their knowledge on pain management. 

  • 2015 AAHA/AAFP Pain Management Guidelines

    The 2015 guidelines include some valuable information that does not overlap so we have referenced both here for your convenience. 

  • 2014 WSAVA Recognition Assessment and Treatment of Pain Guidelines

    The 2015 guidelines include some valuable information that does not overlap so we have referenced both here for your convenience. 

  • AAFP and ISFM Guidelines for Diagnosing and Solving House-Soiling Behaviour in Cats

    Pain is associated with feline behavioral changes such as house soiling. These Guidelines have been developed by the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) and the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) as a resource for veterinary practitioners who want to better understand and manage the important clinical condition of house-soiling in their feline patients. The Guidelines offer straightforward, practical solutions that, in most cases, will help veterinarians and cat owners prevent, manage or entirely remediate feline house-soiling behavior.

  • AAFP Position Statement - Feline Focus

    Respectful handling of cats to prevent fear and pain. To create pleasant veterinary visits and keep cats calm, the veterinary team must strive to ensure respectful and effective patient handling. This requires an understanding of normal cat behavior, body and facial postures associated with fear in cats, how cats learn, and how to train cats to carriers.

  • Cat Care - Acute Pain Guide

    Caregiver guide to explain acute and chronic pain, the cause of pain, and potential treatment options provided by International Cat Care.

  • Pain Perception Merck Veterinary Manual

    Pain serves a protective role that alerts an individual to injury from the environment or from within. Based on current knowledge, all vertebrates, and some invertebrates, experience pain in response to actual or potential tissue damage.

  • Recognition and Assessment of Pain in Animals Merck Veterinary Manual

    Pain is a complex, multidimensional experience with sensory and affective elements. All mammals process the neuroanatomic and neuropharmacologic components involved in transduction, transmission, and perception of noxious stimuli; therefore, it is expected that animals experience pain even if they cannot exactly perceive or communicate it in the same way people do.

  • Zoetis Canine OA Checklist

    This checklist will help your veterinary team identify your dog’s activities and behaviors that might be signs of osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint disease that can be painful.

  • Zoetis Feline OA Pain

    Feline Osteoarthritis is a common and painful disease. This technical bulletin discusses diagnosis, treatment, new resources and future options.

PainTrace® Powered by BioTraceIT™

  • 25 Dogs: Observational Study Monitoring Pain

    In this observational study, we have established that the novel pain monitoring device, PainTrace®, quantifies pain biosignals correlating with veterinary diagnosis with p values <0.001. Statistically significant differentiation between pain and discomfort versus additional observations related to spasms, tightness, and trigger points can also be evaluated.

  • Current Practices in Acute Pain Assessment eBook

    Download this eBook to learn current trends in acute pain management in veterinary practice and discover a new technology that is helping veterinarians detect, quantify and more easily track pain.

  • PainTrace® Clinical Examples

    PainTrace® data examples interpreted by our technical clinical specialists. 

  • Turn Treatment Recommendations into Realities eBook

    Download this eBook for strategies to ease the process of communicating pain to clients to drive treatment plan compliance.


  • IVAPM and BioTraceIT Pain Survey Series

    We have teamed up to deliver a survey series and your knowledge is critical. We are dedicated to meeting your needs by providing exposure to new tools, knowledge resources, and cutting-edge research focused on pain which is at the heart of patient care. The absence of pain potentially indicates wellness, and the presence indicates a need for further assessment; Pain is a complex indicator of physical status.


  • Pain Assessment CE dvm360 - Featuring Dr. Ralph Harvey, Kristen Cooley, & Dr. Fred Wininger

    Pain Assessment to support patient care, practice efficiency and improved communication. This webinar will include an assessment of an animal’s often obscure signs of pain, particularly in the chronically painful patients. In addition, learn about individualized care plans and pet owner engagement and satisfaction.

  • A Conversation on PainTrace® - Featuring Dr. Ralph Harvey & Deborah Dullen

    Ever wonder if the shoulder or elbow is painful? Does CRI or micro-dosing of Ketamine really improve pain? Is the shockwave or laser setting optimized? How can you know for sure? How can you communicate successes with your clients? Learn about PainTrace® and its ability to locate pain and follow pain through treatment via case review and live Q&A.

  • The Physiology of Pain - Featuring Kristen Cooley

    Understanding the physiology of pain is an important step towards recognizing it in veterinary species. This fascinating topic provides important information in an easy to digest format that will help augment your current knowledge set. In addition, learn about some new tools that will help you recognize, detect, quantify and track pain.

  • Pain Assessment - Featuring Tammy Grubb

    Pain can be difficult to identify in animals, but identification is crucial for provision of adequate analgesia and promotion of animal health and welfare. Watch this on-demand webinar now to learn about both current and new pain assessment tools, as well as practical ways to fit them into your workflow.


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